A posteriori – reasoning from observed facts to general conclusions
A priori – reasoning from general propositions to particular conclusions
Behaviorist – one who restricts psychology to objective observation, ignoring introspection and consciousness
Determinism – the doctrine that all events are the inevitable result of antecedent conditions, and that the human being, in acts of apparent choice, is the mechanical expression of his heredity and his past environment.
Dialectic – any logical process; in Hegel, the development of one idea or condition into another by the process of thesis, antithesis, and synthesis
Epistemology – the study of origin, processes, and the validity of any knowledge
Esthetics – the study of the nature of beauty; in Kant the study of sensations
Fatalism – the doctrine that nothing which the individual can do can in any way affect the fate in which he is destined
Heuristic – a method of research
Idealism – in metaphysics, the doctrine that ideas, or thought, are the fundamental reality; in ethics, the devotion to moral ideals.
Intuitionism – in metaphysics, the doctrine that intuition, rather than reason, reveals the reality of things, in ethics, the doctrine that man has an innate sense of right and wrong
Logic – the study of reasoning; in Hegel, the study of the origin and natural sequence of fundamental ideas
Materialism – the doctrine that matter is the only reality
Metaphysics – the inquiry into the ultimate and fundamental reality
Naturalism – the doctrine that all reality comes under the laws of nature
Ontology – the study of the ultimate nature of things
Pluralism – the doctrine that the world is not a unit in law and structure, but the scene of contrary forces and processes.
Realism – in epistemology, the doctrine that the external world exists independently of preception, and substantially as perceived by us; in logic, the doctrine that universal ideas have objective realities corresponding to them.
Scholasticism – the philosophy of the medieval theologians; in general, the divorce of speculation from observation and practice
Sociology – the study of social institutions and processes
Transcendental – beyond the realm and reach of the senses
Theist – a believer in a personal god
Teleology – the theory or study of development as caused by the purposes which things serve
Utilitarianism – the doctrine that all actions are to be judged in terms of their utility in promoting the greatest happiness of the greatest number.
Voluntarism – the doctrine that will is the basic factor, both in the universe and in human conduct.